Normal Range of Epithelial Cells in Urine (High HPF in Urine Test Means?)

It is normal to find a few squamous epithelial cells in urine for both men and women. But when in plenty, they can be worrying.

What does it indicate to have renal cells in your urine? What is the normal range per HPF and during pregnancy?

Epithelial cells in urine simply refer to the cells that have been taken from the epithelium. The epithelium is the lining that is found both inside and outside body organs.

The cells are produced on a regular basis, and the old cells have to be shed, so as to give way to a new set of cells. The different parts of your body will often have its own set of distinctive epithelial cells.

You will therefore find that epithelial cells will at times be found in urine, and their presence here can provide information that is diagnostically present. It, will, however depend on the type of epithelial cells that are present, as well as their numbers.

When a pathologist spins the urine, they can be able to separate the sediment present, and this will allow them to see squamous, transitional, as well as renal epithelial cells.


What do renal epithelial cells in your urine indicate?Epithelial-cells-in-urine per hpf normal range

It is common for both men and women to come across epithelial cells that are present in their urine.

  • Whenever the cells are present in your urine, it means that they have originated from your bladder or urethra region.
  • When there are high levels of epithelial cells, this could be a source of concern, as it could be an indication of a renal or bladder infection, malignancies, or even inflammation.

What does it indicate?

As a man or woman, it is normal for you to shed a certain amount of epithelial cells from your bladder present in urine. In small amounts, this should not be a source of worry.

Many medical experts are of the belief that it is extremely rare for you to see epithelial cells coming from the kidneys.

A urine test is required to determine where the cells are coming from, and the exact number of epithelial cells that is present in your urine. Abnormal amounts of epithelial cells may be caused by the presence of large amounts of sediment in the urine sample.

As a result, this will mean that you need to increase your fluids intake, and then have the urine retested after a while.

What causes high epithelial cells in urinalysis?

Infections in the urinary tract, UTIs, kidney problems and even contamination can cause high epithelial cells in urine. In detail, a large number of epithelial cells in urine test can be caused by the following:

Normal tissue sloughing

It is very normal for your epithelial tissue to slough off some cells from time to time. Your bladder and ureters all contain epithelial cells, which shed and regenerate every once in a while.

These are the small amounts which you will notice in your urine.

Kidney disease

When you have large amounts of these cells in the urine, you could have an issue with your kidney. The pathologist can be on the lookout for particular cell that could be coming from your renal tubes.

The renal tubes are normally responsible for urine production as well as blood filtration. The tubes are round in nature, and have large nuclei and may be an indication of a nephritic syndrome.

The nephritic syndrome is always caused by damage to the kidney.

UTI (Urinary tract infection)

A UTI will usually start in the urethra before finding its way into your bladders. When the bladder lining is irritated, it causes sloughing and irritation of your bladder epithelial cells.

If the UTI is allowed to become severe, you may end up finding renal epithelial cells in your urine. In most cases, when epithelial cells are present in your urine, this will be associated with the presence of an infection.

It is important to note that there could also be other serious causes for this particular condition, and as such, your GP will have to look into the issue very carefully.

When a random urine test comes back with epithelial cells in it, the doctor needs to look into the urine more thoroughly to establish that nothing is wrong with the urinary tract system.


When the genitals are not clean, or the urine is seen to have lots of sediments, the epithelial cells present in the urine sample may have come from another place.

The presence of large amounts of cells may mean that you did not use the wipes that were provided to clean the genitals, or the collection cup may not have been clean from the beginning.

When you are using the urine collection cup, you should ensure that you do not touch the interior part. If for any reason you believe that your sample could have become contaminated, ensure you request that the sample is repeated to clear all doubts.

Additional Findings

When performing a urine test, there is a possibility that you may come across all types of findings, which include the following:

White and red blood cells

A urine test may find the presence of white and red blood cells, and this is very normal, provided that it is within a certain range.

Normally accepted ranges are one to five for erythrocytes for each view space and between four to ten leukocytes. If they are higher than this, it could be an indication that you have a white blood cell infection known as micro.


Normally found in cases of urinary tract infections. For such instances, E. coli will be the most common bacteria


They are very uncommon in urine and when found, they may mean that your body has a high concentration of calcium


It should be negative in your urine sample


This is a metabolism product that is excreted through the kidneys. Doctors use it for determining the functioning of your kidneys.

When the levels are high, it means your kidneys are damaged, and this means that your membranes are not keeping necessary products as all the large substances are being exreted.

What is the normal range?

When you have small amounts of epithelial cells in urine, this should not worry you. You will find that your doctor will most likely attribute the presence of these cells to contamination

Range per HPF

Large amounts of epithelial cells, on the other hand, will need the urine to be taken to the lab for a closer analysis under a microscope.

In a urine test, the normal range of cells should be between fifteen and twenty per HPF (high power field), that is 15 to 20 per HPF.

Analysis or test

When reporting epithelial cells, they are often reported either as few, moderate or many per LPF (low power field).

As stated above, it is normal for some cells to be found in your urine sediment during a urine test. For the case of urinary tract conditions like malignancies, infections, and inflammation, the test will show that there is an increased number of epithelial cells in the urine sample.

Establishing the type of cells that are present in the urine will at times, assist identify different conditions.

For instance, cells that have large amounts of hemosiderin will indicate the presence of hemoglobin or red blood cells in the last few days, even if none has been found in that particular test.

Epithelial cells in urine during pregnancy

A microscopic examination of your urine may find the presence of different kinds of cells. Some of the cells found include epithelial, pus, and red blood cells.

  • Presence of epithelial cells will normally be because of sloughing of cells from your urethra as urine passes through the urethra.
  • In other cases, the cells could have been caused by secretions from your vagina.

It is normal for epithelial cells to be found in urinary sediment, and you, therefore, need not worry about it. However, you should make it a point to drink lots of water to help in flushing out these contaminants from your system.

Home remedies

When you find that you have high amounts of epithelial cells in urine tests, you can try the following home remedies to ensure that the levels come down to what is medically acceptable.


Drinking a lot of water is always great for your overall health. But, when you have epithelial cells showing up in your urine test in large numbers, it becomes the more important for you to increase your water intake.

Increasing your daily intake of water will help improve your output of urine. The increased output will in turn assist you flush out any bacteria present that could be the sole cause of the urinary tract infection. It is recommended that you try to consume between eight and ten glasses of water each day, and you could include other fluids such as:

  1. Water
  2. Vegetable juice
  3. Fruits with high water content
  4. Fruit juices
  5. Coconut water

The minerals and vitamins that are present in these fluids will also play an important role in strengthening the body’s defense mechanism, ensuring that it is ready to fight off any infection that may arise.

Baking soda

Baking soda is recommended as it promotes the presence of an alkaline balance in the body. Even though a little acidity is required for certain functions within the body, such as those carried out by the digestive system, increased acidity levels may give rise to the emergence of very many diseases.

When there is increased acidity in the urine, it will make it difficult for any infections present to clear, and this will mean that the epithelial cells may not reduce as needed.

Baking soda will therefore help balance the alkaline and acidity levels present


  1. Half teaspoon of baking soda
  2. Single glass of water


  1. Take this baking soda and combine it with the water
  2. Consume it two times each day
  3. At the first sign of an infection, you will need to start taking the baking soda. You could also do this when you notice that there is something wrong with your urine.

Cranberry juice

For long, cranberry juice has always been associated with the treatment of UTIs. It contains ten percent carbohydrates and eighty percent water and is a good source of benzoic acid.

These low benzoic levels will play a crucial role of ensuring that they reduce the pH levels of your urine. Cranberry juice also ensures that bacteria does not stick to the sides of your bladder through its ant adherent properties.


  1. Half a glass of unsweetened cranberry juice
  2. Three quarter glasses of water


  1. Mix the cranberry juice with your water
  2. Consume it two times a day

Increase your vitamin C intake

Vitamin c plays an important role of supporting the defense mechanism in the body, and helps in fighting off infections.

When there are epithelial cells in the urine, consuming lots of vitamin c will help the body perform its functions.

There are bacteria that cannot survive in an environment that is acidic, and as such, the vitamin c will inhibit growth of these particular bacteria.

You can increase your vitamin c intake by consuming the following:

  1. Cabbage and broccoli
  2. Grape fruits
  3. Oranges
  4. Strawberries
  5. Green and red peppers
  6. Kiwi fruit
  7. Indian gooseberries
  8. Papaya
  9. Cantaloupe
  10. Guavas

Urva ursi

It is commonly referred to as bearberry, and it helps in stopping very any different types of urinary tract infections.

Bearberry comes with a compound called glucoside arbutin, which acts as an antiseptic, and is therefore in a position to reduce inflammation.

Urva ursi also happens to be a mild diuretic, and this means that it has the capabilities to detoxify your urinary tract, and this will make it possible for you to urinate on a regular basis.

It is important to note that this element has tannin in it, and this is not recommended for women who are pregnant. It also happens to be available in the form of a supplement, and can be used in the following manner:


  1. Take a glass of water and boild it
  2. Add a single tea spoon of urva ursi leaves
  3. Allow it to steep for the next twenty minutes
  4. Take the urva ursi solution and strain it
  5. Ensure you drink the urva ursi solution at least three times each day

Instructions 2

  1. Take a bowl and fill it with water
  2. Scoop a single teaspoon of dried urva usi leaves and stir it in the bowl
  3. Allow it to soak for half a day
  4. Strain your solution and consume it


Garlic happens to be a natural antibiotic that is also a mild diuretic. When consumed regularly, it will help in strengthening your immune system.

Alternatively, you can as well consider using garlic when cooking.


  1. Take two garlic cloves and crush it
  2. You can choose to chew the crushed cloves, or alternatively consider swallowing them using water when hungry
  3. You should take it daily to help reduce the number of cells in urine

Instructions 2

  1. Take two cloves, peel and mince them
  2. The cloves should be placed in boiling water
  3. After a while, remove this cloves from heat and allow it to steep for ten minutes
  4. After ten minutes strain it
  5. Ensure you repeat it three times

Instructions 3

  1. Take two cloves, peel and mince them
  2. Add a single teaspoon of olive oil and mix properly
  3. Take it on a daily basis


It contains bacteria that is known as probiotics. A good bacterium assists in fighting off the bad bacteria that is present in your urinary and digestive systems.

Consuming plenty of yogurt helps in restoring the good bacteria that has been destroyed by the ingestion of antibiotics.

It is also considered a mild diuretic that will help flush out all the toxins that are present in your body and will increase the number of times that you urinate, thereby ensuring that bacteria does not form in your urethra or vagina.


  1. Ingest a single cup of plain and unsweetened sugar two times each day

Instructions 2

  • Take two teaspoons of onions and mix them properly
  • Combine them with plain yogurt that is not sweetened
  • You should eat this blend daily

Instructions 3

  • Chop half a cucumber
  • Combine it with your plain and unsweetened yogurt
  • Ensure you eat it daily


It comes with phosphorous, magnesium, calcium and many kinds of vitamins. Watercress also contains essential oils that are vital in fighting bacteria.

The iodine, potassium, and iron contained in watercress will help promote the formation of new cells, and will act as a natural diuretic. It will, therefore, help your kidneys in flushing out all the toxins that could be present.


  • Take a single glass of water and boil it
  • Chop two teaspoons of watercress and stir them in to the water
  • Take the pan from the water and allow the leaves to steep for at least fifteen minutes
  • Strain the watercress solution
  • Take your watercress two times daily

Instructions 2

  • Scoop two teaspoons of chopper watercress leaves and place them in a bowl. Add four cups of cold water to it
  • Allow the watercress leaves to soak in your solution for the entire night
  • When you wake up in the morning, allow it to warm for at least two minutes before you can drink it
  • Take another cup before going to bed in the evening


Onions have potassium, sulphur and flavonoids. You will therefore find that they contain coagulant, antiseptic, and anti-fungal properties, all of which combined helps in keeping infection at bay.

They also act as a diuretic, which prevents water retention and in the process cleans out your urinary tract system.


  • Chop an onion into two
  • Take one half and rub it to your loins
  • It should help in relieving your urine output problem
  • You can also take some sugar and mix it with your onion. The combination of sugar and onions should be taken early in the morning when your stomach is empty

Instructions 2

  • Take two glasses of water and boil
  • Take a quarter cup chopped onion and stir it in the water
  • Reduce the heat in your stove and allow it to continue simmering until half the water has dissolved
  • Strain the onion solution and take it daily


Basil contains antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, as well as diuretic properties that come handy when dealing with the presence of epithelial cells in your urine.

The basil will prevent kidneys stones by helping detoxify your urinary tract system.


  • When you wake up in the morning, and before consuming anything else, ensure you chew five basil leaves
  • Sip water at least five times
  • Repeat again before sleeping


Alma contains vitamin C that helps in strengthening your body’s immune system, and in the process, assists protect it against all types of bacterial infection.

Alma will also assist in flushing out all the toxins that could be present in your body and will soothe your inner bladder layers.


  • Mix two cups of alma with a single teaspoon of honey
  • Take this mixture at least three times each day

Coriander seeds

The seeds are diuretic in nature and come with oil known as linalool. The oil will help in reducing flatulence while also helping regulate the performance of your digestive system.

Coriander seeds are vital in that they assist in fighting both bacterial and fungal infections, while relieving the burning sensations that are caused by a urinary tract infection.


  • Scoop ten grams of coriander seeds and soak them in a cup of water overnight
  • In the morning grind your coriander seeds with that water
  • Strain your coriander seeds and then drink this solution after you have fused them with some sugar candy
  • You should drink your coriander solution on a regular basis to help in relieving the pain that may be caused by a UTI

It is recommended that you visit your GP occasionally to get a urinalysis performed. The urinalysis may be performed to check the condition of your health, help in diagnosing a particular medical condition, or to help your GP monitor your condition.


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